Accounts: 0782557223 Tracking: 0318115749 | 0870574924


Beliefs, Values, Morals, Assumptions and Attitudes

Beliefs are the convictions that we generally hold to be true, usually without actual proof or evidence and are basically assumptions that we make about ourselves, other in the world and how we expect things to be. Beliefs are about how we think things really are, what we think is really true and what therefore expect as likely consequences that will follow from our behavior. Beliefs are often, but not always connected to religion. Our beliefs grow from what we see, hear, experience, read and think about. From these things we develop an opinion that we hold to be true and unmovable at that time. Additionally they can be Empowering Beliefs, which are related to excellence and how it could be achieved, or Limiting Beliefs, where your behavior is not what you want, but you think you cannot change it.

The key to changing your belief system is changing your thoughts. Orison Swett Marden wrote in How to Get What You Want, “Stop thinking trouble if you want to attract its opposite; stop thinking poverty if you wish to attract plenty. Refuse to have anything to do with the things you fear, the things you do not want.”

Values stem from our beliefs, are things that we deem important and are about how we think things ought to be or people ought to behave. Values can include concepts like equality, honesty, education, effort, perseverance, loyalty, faithfulness, conservation of the environment and many, many other concepts. Values govern the way we behave, communicate, and interact with others.

It is possible for our beliefs and values to differ over time as we encounter evidence or have experiences that challenge our previously held views. Conversely our beliefs and values can also be strengthened by experience or evidence. Beliefs and values determine our attitudes and opinions.

Morals are a system of beliefs that is taught for deciding good or bad as opposed to coming from within and are emotionally related for deciding right or wrong. Morals have more social value and acceptance than values, with a person being judged more for their moral character than their values. Morals are a motivation or a key for leading a good life in the right direction whereas value is imbibed within a person and can be bad or good depending on the person’s choice. Morals can be related to one’s religion, a political system or a business society, and are formed because of values rather than being determined by values.

Assumptions are our long-learnt, automatic responses and established opinions. We are, ourselves, almost always unaware of the nature of our own basic assumptions, but they are enacted through our behavior – what we say and do. Basic assumptions are usually rooted in our infancy, early family life and social context. More widely, assumptions shaping our behavior relate to cultural context.

Attitudes are our learned ways of responding to people and situations based on the beliefs, values and assumptions we hold. Attitudes become manifest through our behavior.

Dealing with assumptions

When discussing an issue or solving a problem, people often jump to conclusions before they spend time talking about what the problem is – or what data they have at hand. The Circle of Assumptions teaches us an orderly way to think about problems, starting with data and building toward conclusions. It enables us to see how easily our communication can be garbled by our failure to be aware of our own assumptions – and how they affect the conclusions we reach. It helps us to anticipate and to head off potential miscues and misunderstandings.

Here’s an example of a typical assumption at work:

Your boss is leading a discussion of the launch of a new software product in 12 weeks. He’s laying out the production schedule. A co-worker says, “If the launch is in 12 weeks, then we’re already two weeks behind schedule.”

Immediately, your mind draws the following conclusions:

“Once again we’re behind schedule. Why do we always make this mistake?”
“This is my boss’s fault. He should have seen this coming. I’m not going to take part in a project that’s bound to fail.”
At that moment, your boss pulls out a project schedule and says: “It’s funny. I anticipated your question. And if you look at our schedule, you’ll see we’re exactly where we planned to be. Because of our new supplier, we can get product in the stores in less than eight weeks. We’re actually one week ahead of schedule.”

As your co-worker turns red, you thank your lucky stars that you kept your assumptions to yourself!

Now let’s define a few terms.

      Data is observable data and experiences, as a camera might record them. Example: “We are planning to launch a new product.”

Interpretations are data we select from what we observe. This is often based on our own belief systems. Example: “Once again we’re behind schedule.”

Evaluations are value judgments and meanings that we add, often laden with emotion. Words like “right” and “wrong” or “good” and “bad” creep into our language. Example: “This is my boss’s fault.”

Conclusions are statements that indicate our mind is made up. Over time, our conclusions become the basis for our beliefs. Example: “We need better leadership.”

Actions are steps taken. Example: “I’m not going to take part in something that’s bound to fail.”

Clarifying People’s Assumptions

Psychologists know that people’s beliefs affect how they interpret data. So the Circle of Assumptions teaches us that people can get caught in self-justifying feedback loops, where they become blind to data which does not reinforce their beliefs.

Members of a group need to be highly aware of their own assumptions in order to avoid the situation where the group goes literally blind – and misses key data. So a critical element of productive conversation is the ability to assess what people really know, and what they think they know.

The Circle of Assumptions teaches us to drive back toward the center, toward the data, and to keep checking each other’s assumptions. In order to find the assumptions hidden in a conversation, people need to ask each other:

      “What are your assumptions?”


      “What assumptions do you think we are (or I am) making?”


      “What’s the data for that?”


    “What am I (are we) missing here?”

The following phrases can help people clarify their assumptions when important issues are being discussed:

      “I want to make sure we’re thinking clearly here. What do we really know, and what are we assuming?”


      “Each one of us is fallible. That’s why we need each other to challenge our assumptions. Now what could we be missing?”


      “Help me see things clearly. What assumptions am I making?”


    “I’m concerned that we may be assuming too much. Let’s start with the data at ha


Skillful communicators frequently probe their own assumptions and challenge them. This sets the stage for other people to do the same. When people focus on the data that they’re missing, it allows them to move forward to resolve the problem rather than remaining mired in their assumptions.

The Assumption of Competence

Adding a further layer of complexity is the fact that our brains are hard-wired with what psychologists call “the assumption of competence.” In essence, we perceive ourselves – and want to be perceived by others – as competent and infallible, not prone to error.

This is the basis of cognitive dissonance, a well-known psychological syndrome that boosts our image of ourselves as competent and in control. It is thought that cognitive dissonance played an ancient role in our survival by helping early human beings feel in control – despite overwhelming odds. Today, cognitive dissonance drives many of our assumptions.

We unconsciously tend to assume we know more than we do, or that we have more power than we do.

The Assumption of Competence affects all of our communication and decision-making. Consider the following types of activities.

o A management team is examining strategic options. The CEO says, “It all boils down to the marketplace. If our competitor cuts his prices $1, then we’ll do the same. It’s as simple as that.” (In this case the assumption of competence is that the CEO has the ability to respond to any price change. A second assumption is that pricing is the most important market driver, and that pricing flexibility is thus the only scenario to examine.)

o A manager is giving an employee her annual review, “I know you want a higher-paying position with our company, but we don’t have any openings now.” (In this case, the assumption of competence is that it’s good management to limit the conversation to an assessment of the situation, rather than explore the employee’s aspirations and discuss what the company can do to help her realize them.)

o A group of people is developing options for a new product. The team leader says, “We’ve got the best minds we need in the room, right here. Let’s hear your best ideas. From there, we’ll develop a plan.” (In this case, the leader extends his assumption of competence to include everyone in the group. In an effort to make everyone feel valued, he loses an opportunity to begin by saying: “We want to get all the possibilities are on the table. Who else should we canvass before we start narrowing our options?”)

Dealing With Assumptions of Competence

Assumptions of competence can be sensitive to untangle. Consider this dialogue, in which Rachel is the manager.

Linda: “Our competitor bought this phone system. We’ve got to have it.”

Jack: “I’ve got 20 years experience. Believe me, we don’t need this system.”

Rachel: “What is it with you two? If you don’t stop fighting, we’re never going to get anywhere.”

Rachel wants the two of them to reach an agreement, but her communication is unskilled. Here’s another way to handle it.

Linda: “Our competitor bought this phone system. We’ve got to have it.”

Jack: “I’ve got 20 years experience. Believe me, we don’t need this system.”

Rachel: “Let’s examine the assumptions that we’re dealing with here. First, Linda, how do you think this phone system will benefit us?”

Linda: “Well, I think our customers are going to expect us to deliver the same level of service as our competitor.”

Rachel: “So your argument is based on that assumption, right?”

Linda: “Well, yes.”

Rachel: “Since this is an important decision, what additional information could we get that would help us clarify whether your assumption is correct?”

Linda: “We could talk to some customers, I suppose.”

Rachel: “Excellent idea.”

Jack: “Hey, let me interject something here. We don’t need this system because it’s too complex for our sales people to learn.”

Rachel: “That’s also based on an assumption, isn’t it?”

Jack: “Yes, but trust me, I’ve seen these people working with technology. There’s too much turnover to train them how to use a complex system.”

Rachel: “Aren’t you assuming it’s a more complex system to use? Perhaps we should test that assumption by talking to them, first.”

Jack: “I’m not going to waste my time doing that.”

Rachel: “So it’s your feeling that you already know what they’re going to tell you? Would you be willing to stake your job on that?”

Jack: “I didn’t realize it was so important.”

Rachel: “To me, what’s important is that our managers appreciate the value of objective, non-biased information. And that they use that information to make this company more effective. Do you see how important that is?”

Jack: “Well, if you put it that way.”

Rachel: “Let’s agree that three of us will meet here one week from today. Jack, you’ll discuss with all three call center supervisors what new features they think are needed. Linda, you’ll talk to at least three of our major customers and find out what they think. And let’s take it from there. Any questions?”


To communicate productively, a group has to be able to challenge its members’ assumptions. The most important assumptions to examine are always the ones that people cling to most dearly. Often these assumptions are based on deeply held beliefs. Unmasking these beliefs and assumptions helps us learn and understand what motivates us – and raise the level of the group discussion and decision-making.

From a management perspective, this is a skill we need to model ourselves before we can ask it of others. By inviting other people to test our assumptions, we set an example we can then use in our communications with them.